Can Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Direct-Acting Antiviral Treatment as Prevention Reverse the HCV Epidemic Among Men Who Have Sex With Men in the United Kingdom? Epidemiological and Modeling Insights.

TitleCan Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Direct-Acting Antiviral Treatment as Prevention Reverse the HCV Epidemic Among Men Who Have Sex With Men in the United Kingdom? Epidemiological and Modeling Insights.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2016
AuthorsMartin N, Thornton A, Hickman M, Sabin C, Nelson M, Cooke G, Martin T, Delpech V, Ruf M, Price H, Azad Y, Thomson E and Vickerman P
JournalClin Infect Dis
Volume62
Issue9
Pagination1072-1080
Date Published2016 May 01
ISSN1537-6591
KeywordsAntiviral Agents, Coinfection, Hepatitis C, HIV Infections, Homosexuality, Male, Humans, Incidence, Male, Models, Theoretical, Prevalence, United Kingdom
Abstract

BACKGROUND: We report on the hepatitis C virus (HCV) epidemic among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United Kingdom and model its trajectory with or without scaled-up HCV direct-acting antivirals (DAAs).METHODS: A dynamic HCV transmission model among HIV-diagnosed MSM in the United Kingdom was calibrated to HCV prevalence (antibody [Ab] or RNA positive), incidence, and treatment from 2004 to 2011 among HIV-diagnosed MSM in the UK Collaborative HIV Cohort (UK CHIC). The epidemic was projected with current or scaled-up HCV treatment, with or without a 20% behavioral risk reduction.RESULTS: HCV prevalence among HIV-positive MSM in UK CHIC increased from 7.3% in 2004 to 9.9% in 2011, whereas primary incidence was flat (1.02-1.38 per 100 person-years). Over the next decade, modeling suggests 94% of infections are attributable to high-risk individuals, comprising 7% of the population. Without treatment, HCV chronic prevalence could have been 38% higher in 2015 (11.9% vs 8.6%). With current treatment and sustained virological response rates (status quo), chronic prevalence is likely to increase to 11% by 2025, but stabilize with DAA introduction in 2015. With DAA scale-up to 80% within 1 year of diagnosis (regardless of disease stage), and 20% per year thereafter, chronic prevalence could decline by 71% (to 3.2%) compared to status quo in 2025. With additional behavioral interventions, chronic prevalence could decline further to <2.5% by 2025.CONCLUSIONS: Epidemiological data and modeling suggest a continuing HCV epidemic among HIV-diagnosed MSM in the United Kingdom driven by high-risk individuals, despite high treatment rates. Substantial reductions in HCV transmission could be achieved through scale-up of DAAs and moderately effective behavioral interventions.

DOI10.1093/cid/ciw075
Alternate JournalClin. Infect. Dis.
PubMed ID26908813
PubMed Central IDPMC4826456
Grant ListMR/M004236/1 / / Medical Research Council / United Kingdom
PDF-2011-04-049 / / Department of Health / United Kingdom
G0801822 / / Medical Research Council / United Kingdom
/ / Medical Research Council / United Kingdom
R01 DA037773-01A1 / DA / NIDA NIH HHS / United States
MR/K023233/1 / / Medical Research Council / United Kingdom
G0701627 / / Medical Research Council / United Kingdom
WT 102789 / / Wellcome Trust / United Kingdom
RP-DG-0610-10055 / / Department of Health / United Kingdom
P30 AI036214 / AI / NIAID NIH HHS / United States
R01 DA037773 / DA / NIDA NIH HHS / United States